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Elizabeth's first impression of Darcy was dead on. When she met him at the ball, he was proud and arrogant. He made no attempt to conceal the fact he would rather have been anywhere else, or that he would have preferred the company of others. We later find out from his housekeeper, that what Elizabeth perceived as pride and arrogance was really nothing more than reservation (shyness among strangers). I've known people like that, so I'll give him a pass. Unfortunately, Elizabeth did not.
Elizabeth's first impression stays with her because Darcy doesn't do a very good job of changing her perception. She also puts her trust in and believes untrue gossip from unreliable sources, which certainly doesn't endear him to her. I'd have to say the main reason she can't throw off her first impression and see the man would be her own pride. We all have flaws, and most of us don't like to admit them.
Pride and Prejudice