"Paul's Case: A Study in Temperament" is a short story by Willa Cather. It was first published in McClure's Magazine in 1905. It also appeared in a collection of Cather's stories, The Troll Garden (1905). For many years, "Paul's Case" was the only one of her stories that Cather allowed to be anthologized.Overview
Around the turn of the century, Pittsburgh was an industrial center with a successful class of business leaders. According to Cather's story, these leaders were able to manage their companies while they were in Europe. On the other hand, New York City, was known to be a place that one can escape to. It was the center of fine living and society, and “the symbol of ultimate glamour and cosmopolitan sophistication at that time.”
The symbolism of this lifestyle in "Paul's Case" is the luxurious Waldorf Astoria Hotel. The descriptions of New York City contrast the descriptions of Paul's home, for which he despises.
Paul, a Pittsburgh high school student, is frustrated with his middle-class life. From his negative surroundings he would be anxious to make a perfect way of living. From his conservative environment he would purposely separate himself from everyone else and feel isolated. He dreams of another life in which he would attend concerts and theater, although his appreciation of the arts is more social and superficial than aesthetic. For example, he enjoys a symphony concert not so much for the music but for the atmosphere: "the lights danced before his eyes and the concert hall blazed into unimaginable splendor." Later on, he steals money from where he works, to support a short escapade in New York City. Once he exhausts his funds, he commits suicide rather than allow his father to take him back to Pittsburgh.
Paul's teachers and father refer to Paul's "case," representing him at a distance and as an example of someone to be studied, handled, and managed. The term enables Cather to adopt "the voice of medical authority."Plot summary
At the start of the story, Paul is suspended from his high school in Pittsburgh for a week. He meets with his principal and his teachers, and they complain about Paul's "defiant manner" in class and the "physical aversion" he exhibits toward his teachers. One of Paul's teachers also mentions that Paul's mother died back when he was a child in Colorado. He then goes to work at a music hall in Pittsburgh, named Carnegie Hall. Here he enjoys donning his uniform and performing his job as an usher with enthusiasm as if he were the host of a grand social event. He stays for the concert and enjoys the social scene, while losing himself in the music. After the concert, Paul follows the soloist and imagines life inside her hotel room. Unfortunately, the audience learns that Paul and his father have a poor relationship. Upon returning home very late one night, Paul enters through the basement to avoid a confrontation with his father. Paul stays awake all night imagining what would happen if his father mistook him for a burglar and shot him, or if his dad would recognize him in time.
Paul despises the "burghers" on his respectable but drab street. He is unimpressed by a plodding young man who works for an iron company and is married with four children although his father considers him a role model for Paul. While Paul longs to be wealthy, cultivated, and powerful, he lacks the stamina and ambition to attempt to change his condition. Instead, Paul escapes his monotonous life by visiting Charley Edwards, a young actor. Later on, Paul makes it clear to one of his teachers that his job ushering is more important than his schoolwork, and his father prevents him from continuing to work as an usher.
Paul takes a train to New York City after stealing over $1000 from his new job at Denny & Carson's to finance a new life. He buys an expensive wardrobe, rents a room at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, and walks around the city. He also meets a young San Franciscan who takes him on an all-night tour of the city's lively social scene. His few days of impersonating a rich, privileged young man bring him more contentment than he has ever known. This is because living a prosperous life is Paul's only hope and dream. However, on the eighth day, after he has spent most of his money, Paul learns from a Pittsburgh newspaper that his theft has been made public. His father then returns the money and is en route to New York City to bring Paul home to Pittsburgh. We are then told that Paul had bought a gun on his first day in New York City, and he briefly considers shooting himself to avoid returning to his old life in Pittsburgh. Eventually, he decides against it and instead commits suicide by jumping in front of a train. Paul made the ultimate decision of taking his own life because the thought of returning to his old one was too much for him to handle, and he felt the need to escape into a whole different world where it was much more enjoyable to be.Literary criticism and significance
The story has been called a "gay suicide" due to the lack of a relationship with his father and the absence of a mother figure. Many critics have attributed his suicide to the forces of alienation and stigmatization facing a young homosexual man in early 20th-century America.
Wayne Koestenbaum reads the story as a possible portrait of Willa Cather's "own desire for aesthetic fulfillment and sexual nonconformity." He also identifies the literary topos of opera queendom, commingled here as it often is with a suicidal sense of self-loss.
Another critic reads it an exploration of Cather's belief in the "irreconcilable opposition" between art and life.
James Obertino of the University of Central Missouri suggested Paul suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.
Jane Nardin explores the possibility that Paul's character is gay, and that this is a metaphor for a general feeling of being an outsider or not fitting in with a specific group of people.
Hayley Wilhelm of the University of New Haven suggests the possibility that Paul has autism due to certain signs and symptoms he displays throughout the story.
Author Roger Austen states that Paul might be portrayed as a homosexual character because of the "depiction of a sensitive young man stifled by the drab ugliness of his environment and places the protagonist in an American literary tradition of "village sissies".Adaptations
The story was the basis for a chamber opera in two acts with music by Gregory Spears to a libretto by Spears and Kathryn Walat. It premiered in April 2013 at the Artisphere in Washington, D.C. and was then performed for the PROTOTYPE opera festival in New York City, performed at HERE, 145 6th Avenue.
Paul's Case was adapted into a TV movie in 1980 directed by Lamont Johnson, starring Eric Roberts.
Paul's Case was also released as a book-on-tape by HarperCollins in 1981.
In 1986, Paul's Case was released as an audiobook by Caedmon Audio Cassette References
- ^ Willa Cather's Collected Short Fiction, University of Nebraska Press; revised edition, November 1, 1970, p. 261
- ^ Acocella, Joan. Willa Cather and the Politics of Criticism. Lincoln, NE.: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, p. 27.
- ^ Rubin, Larry (1975). "The Homosexual Motif in Willa Cather's "Paul's Case"". Studies in Short Fiction. 12: 5.
- ^ Summers, Claude J. (2009-01-01). ""A Losing Game in the End": Aestheticism and Homosexuality in Cather's "Paul's Case"". MFS Modern Fiction Studies. 36 (1): 103–119. doi:10.1353/mfs.0.0369. ISSN 1080-658X.
- ^ content
- ^ Sirridge, Marjorie. "Paul's Case". NYU School of Medicine. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
- ^ a b c Koestenbaum, Wayne (1994). The Queen's Throat: Opera, Homosexuality and the Mystery of Desire. Gay Men's Press. pp. 28–29.
- ^ "Paul's Case". english.fju.edu.tw. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
- ^ Eric Haralson, Henry James and Queer Modernity, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 137
- ^ Moore, William Thomas (2014). "The Execution of a Homosexual in Cather's "Paul's Case"" (PDF): 103.
- ^ Quirk, Tom (1990). Bergson and American Culture: The Worlds of Willa Cather and Wallace Stevens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 109.
- ^ Obertino, James (May 21, 2012). "'Paul's Case' and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder". The Explicator. 70 (1): 49–52. doi:10.1080/00144940.2012.663009.
- ^ Nardin, Jane (2008). "Homosexual Identities in Willa Cather's 'Paul's Case'". Literature & History. 17: 16 – via Academic Search Premier.
- ^ Wilhelm, Hayley (August 3, 2017). "Signs and Symptoms of Autism in Willa Cather's PAUL'S CASE". The Explicator. 75 (3): 194–199. doi:10.1080/00144940.2017.1346579. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- ^ Summers, Claude J. (January 1, 2009). ""A Losing Game in the End": Aestheticism and Homosexuality in Cather's "Paul's Case"". 36 (1): 103–119. doi:10.1353/mfs.0.0369 – via Project MUSE.
- ^ Catlin, Roger (April 23, 2013). "Skillful singers bring a short story to life in UrbanArias Paul's Case". Washington Post.
- ^ Jorden, James (January 14, 2014). "New—And Improved: In Paul's Case, a Young Opera Festival Yields Its First Masterpiece". The New York Observer.
- ^ Zucker, Carole (1995). Figures of Light: Actors and Directors Illuminate the Art of Film Acting. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 181–2. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- ^ "Paul's Case Movies & Media Adaptations | BookRags.com". www.bookrags.com. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
- ^ "Paul's Case Movies & Media Adaptations". Retrieved 2017-11-13.
- Full text at the Willa Cather Archive
- "Paul's Case" in: Literature Annotations
- Nardin, Jane. "Homosexual Identities in Willa Cather's 'Paul's Case'". Sage Journals. Sage. Retrieved April 4, 2017.