- Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis set to music the Canto general.
- American composer Samuel Barber used Neruda's poems for his cantata The Lovers in 1971.
- Alternative rock musician Lynda Thomas released as a single the flamenco song Ay, Ay, Ay (2001), which is based on the book "Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair".
- Austrian avant-garde composer Michael Gielen set to music Un día sobresale (Ein Tag Tritt Hervor. Pentaphonie für obligates Klavier, fünf Soloinstrumente und fünf Gruppen zu je fünf Musikern mit Worten von Pablo Neruda. 1960–63).
- Native American composer Ron Warren set to music Quatro Sonetos de Amor for coloratura soprano, flute and piano (1999), 1 from each group of sonnets in Cien Sonetos de Amor. Recorded on Circle All Around Me Blue Heron Music BHM101.
- Mexican composer Daniel Catán wrote an opera Il Postino (2010), whose premiere production featured Spanish tenor Plácido Domingo portraying Pablo Neruda.
- Folk rock / progressive rock group Los Jaivas, famous in Chile, used Las alturas de Macchu Picchu as the text for their album of the same name.
- Chilean composer Sergio Ortega worked closely with the poet in the musical play Fulgor y muerte de Joaquín Murieta (1967). Three decades later, Ortega expanded the piece into an opera, leaving Neruda's text intact.
- Peter Lieberson composed Neruda Songs (2005) and Songs of Love and Sorrow (2010) based on Cien Sonetos de Amor.
- Jazz vocalist Luciana Souza released an album called "Neruda" (2004) featuring 10 of Neruda's poems set to the music of Federico Mompou.
- The South African musician Johnny Clegg drew heavily on Neruda in his early work with the band Juluka.
- On the back on Jackson Browne's album The Pretender, there is a poem by Neruda.
- Canadian rock group Red Rider named their 1983 LP/CD release, Neruda.
- Pop band Sixpence None the Richer set his poem "Puedo escribir" to music on their platinum selling self-titled album (1997).
- The group Brazilian Girls turned "Poema 15" ("Poem 15") from Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (20 love poems and a song of despair) into their song "Me gusta cuando callas" from their self-titled album.
- With permission from the Fundación Neruda, Marco Katz composed a song cycle based on the volume Piedras del cielo for voice and piano.Centaur Records CRC 3232, 2012.
- The Occitan singer Joanda composed the song Pablo Neruda 
- American contemporary composer Morten Lauridsen set Neruda's poem "Soneto de la noche" to music as part of his cycle "Nocturnes" from 2005.
- Juan Luis Guerra credits Neruda for two phrases for his song, "Bachata rosa".
- Ezequiel Vinao composed "Sonetos de amor" (2011) a song cycle based on Neruda's love poems.
- Ute Lemper composed "Forever" (2013) an album of the Love poems of Pablo Neruda
- Neruda's 1952 stay in a villa on the island of Capri was fictionalized in Chilean author Antonio Skarmeta's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia (published as Burning Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman).
- The 1998 Spanglish novel Yo-Yo Boing! by Giannina Braschi features a comic, dinner party debate between poets and artists about Neruda’s genius versus that of other Spanish language poets Quevedo, Góngora, Ruben Darío, Juan Ramon Jimenez, and Federico Garcia Lorca.
- In 2008 the writer Roberto Ampuero published a novel El caso Neruda, about his private eye Cayetano Brulé, where Pablo Neruda is one of the protagonists.
The Dreamer (2010) is a children's fictional biography of Neruda, "a shy Chilean boy whose spirit develops and thrives despite his father's relentless negativity". Written by Pam Muñoz Ryan and illustrated by Peter Sís, the text and illustrations are printed in Neruda's signature green ink.
- The Italian film Il Postino, inspired by Antonio Skármeta's 1985 novel Ardiente paciencia (Ardent Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman), centres on the story of Pablo Neruda (Philippe Noiret) living in exile on Salina Island near Sicily during the 1950s. While there, he befriends the local postman and inspires in him a love of poetry.
Neruda is a 120-minute documentary about his life and poetry including interviews with his friends like Volodia Teitelboim, Jose Balmes, Jorge Edwards, Andrej Wosnessenski, Mikis Theodorakis. This film was directed by the German filmmaker Ebbo Demant and broadcast 2004 in the European culture TV channel ARTE and the German public-service broadcaster ARD.
- In the U.S. sitcom How I Met Your Mother, both Ted Mosby and the Mother's favourite poem is revealed to be Pablo Neruda's Mañana XXVII.
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