1. ^ "Mahabharata". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary,
  2. ^ "Mahabharata". Oxford Dictionaries Online.
  3. ^ Datta, Amaresh (2006-01-01). "The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj to Jyoti)". ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0. 
  4. ^ a b c Brockington (1998, p. 26)
  5. ^ Van Buitenen; The Mahabharata – 1; The Book of the Beginning. Introduction (Authorship and Date)
  6. ^ bhārata means the progeny of Bharata, the legendary king who is claimed to have founded the Bhāratavarsha kingdom.
  7. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8. 
  8. ^ T. R. S. Sharma; June Gaur; Sahitya Akademi (New Delhi, Inde). (2000). Ancient Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-260-0794-3. 
  9. ^ Spodek, Howard. Richard Mason. The World's History. Pearson Education: 2006, New Jersey. 224, 0-13-177318-6
  10. ^ Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian. Writings on Indian Culture, History and Identity, London: Penguin Books, 2005.
  11. ^ W.J.Johnson (1998). The Sauptikaparvan of the Mahabharata: The Massacre at Night. Oxford University Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-19-282361-8. 
  12. ^ Hermann Oldenberg, Das Mahabharata: seine Entstehung, sein Inhalt, seine Form, Göttingen, 1922,
  13. ^ "The Mahabharata" at The Sampradaya Sun
  14. ^ A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1 by Maurice Winternitz
  15. ^ a b c d Buitenen (1973) pp. xxiv–xxv
  16. ^ Sukthankar (1933) "Prolegomena" p. lxxxvi. Emphasis is original.
  17. ^ Gupta & Ramachandran (1976), citing Mahabharata, Critical Edition, I, 56, 33
  18. ^ SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11
  19. ^ Brockington, J. L. (1998). The Sanskrit epics, Part 2. Volume 12. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 90-04-10260-4. 
  20. ^ 18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh. 5.152.23)
  21. ^ The Spitzer Manuscript (Beitrage zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2004. It is one of the oldest Sanskrit manuscripts found on the Silk Road and part of the estate of Dr. Moritz Spitzer.
  22. ^ The Oldest Extant Parvan-List of the Mahābhārata, Dieter Schlingloff, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 89, No. 2, April–June 1969, pp. 334–338, at JSTOR
  23. ^ J.A.B. van Buitenen, Mahābhārata, Volume 1, p.445, citing W. Caland, The Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, p.640-2
  24. ^ Dio Chrysostom, 53.6-7, trans. H. Lamar Crosby, Loeb Classical Library, 1946, vol. 4, p. 363.
  25. ^ Christian Lassen, in his Indische Alterthumskunde, supposed that the reference is ultimately to Dhritarashtra's sorrows, the laments of Gandhari and Draupadi, and the valor of Arjuna and Suyodhana or Karna (cited approvingly in Max Duncker, The History of Antiquity (trans. Evelyn Abbott, London 1880), vol. 4, p. 81). This interpretation is endorsed in such standard references as Albrecht Weber's History of Indian Literature but has sometimes been repeated as fact instead of as interpretation.
  26. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 6: Bhishma Parva: Bhagavat-Gita Parva: Section XXV (Bhagavad Gita Chapter I)". Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  27. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 6: Bhishma Parva: Bhagavat-Gita Parva: Section XLII (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XVIII)". Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  28. ^ The Ashvamedhika-parva is also preserved in a separate version, the Jaimini-Bharata (Jaiminiya-ashvamedha) where the frame dialogue is replaced, the narration being attributed to Jaimini, another disciple of Vyasa. This version contains far more devotional material (related to Krishna) than the standard epic and probably dates to the 12th century. It has some regional versions, the most popular being the Kannada one by Devapurada Annama Lakshmisha (16th century).The Mahabharata
  29. ^ In discussing the dating question, historian A. L. Basham says: "According to the most popular later tradition the Mahabharata War took place in 3102 BCE, which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century BCE, but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century BCE; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier." Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, pp.27ff.
  30. ^ M Witzel, Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state, EJVS vol.1 no.4 (1995); also in B. Kölver (ed.), Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India, München, R. Oldenbourg, 1997, p.27-52
  31. ^ A.D. Pusalker, History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I, Chapter XIV, p.273
  32. ^ FE Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, p.180. He shows estimates of the average as 47, 50, 31 and 35 for various versions of the lists.
  33. ^ Pargiter, op.cit. p.180-182
  34. ^ B. B. Lal, Mahabharata and Archaeology in Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.57-58
  35. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century BCE as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century BCE. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." (p.254)
  36. ^ "Lord Krishna lived for 125 years". 
  37. ^ "5151 years of Gita". 
  38. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272
  39. ^ AD Pusalker, op.cit. p.272
  40. ^ "Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries" (in German). 2003-02-11. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  41. ^ "Book 1: Adi Parva: Jatugriha Parva". Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  42. ^ "Book 2: Sabha Parva: Sabhakriya Parva". Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  43. ^ Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti (2005). "Yudhisthira's final trial". Mahabharata (45th ed.). Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. ISBN 81-7276-368-9. 
  44. ^ Just War in Comparative Perspective
  45. ^ Bhandarkar Institute, Pune—Virtual Pune
  46. ^ Srinivas, Smriti (2004) [2001]. Landscapes of Urban Memory. Orient Longman. p. 23. ISBN 81-250-2254-6. OCLC 46353272. 
  47. ^ "The Javanization of the Mahābhārata, Chapter 15. Indic Transformation: The Sanskritization of Jawa and the Javanization of the Bharata". 
  48. ^ "picture details". Plant Cultures. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  49. ^ Gaṅgā Rām, Garg (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu world, Volume 1. p. 129. ISBN 978-81-7022-376-4. 
  50. ^ Several editions of the Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation of the Mahabharata incorrectly cite the publisher, Pratap Chandra Roy, as the translator and this error has been propagated into secondary citations. See the publishers preface to the current Munshiram Manoharlal edition for an explanation.
  51. ^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli at the Internet Sacred Text Archive
  52. ^ P. Lal. "Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Pratap Chandra Roy". An Annotated Mahabharata Bibliography (Calcutta: Writer's Workshop). 
  53. ^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated by Romesh Chunder Dutt at the Online Library of Liberty.
  54. ^ Don Rubin (1998). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 195. ISBN 0-415-05933-X. 
  55. ^ The Mahabharata as Theatre by Pradip Bhattacharya , June 13, 2004.
  56. ^ Pai, Anant (1998). Pai, Anant, ed. Amar Chitra Katha Mahabharata. Kadam, Dilip (illus.). Mumbai: Amar Chitra Katha. p. 1200. ISBN 81-905990-4-6. 
  57. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1920 film)
  58. ^ Daana Veera Shura Karna at the Internet Movie Database
  59. ^ "What makes Shyam special". 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  60. ^ Kumar, Anuj (27 May 2010). "Fact of the matter". The Hindu. 
  61. ^ "Mahabharat: Theatrical Trailer (Animated Film)". 
  62. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1988–1990 TV series)
  63. ^ The Mahabharata at the Internet Movie Database (1989 mini-series)
  64. ^ "In brief: Mahabharat will be most expensive Indian movie ever". 
  65. ^ C. J. Wallia (1996). "IndiaStar book review: Satyajit Ray by Surabhi Banerjee". Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  66. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9.  p. 351-52
  67. ^ Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Volume I and II. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. ISBN 1-898723-30-3.  vol 1 pp. 14–15
  68. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9.  p. 377
  69. ^ a b Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5.  p.305
  70. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9.  p. 351
  71. ^ Roy, Ashim Kumar (1984). A history of the Jainas. New Delhi: Gitanjali Pub. House. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8364-1136-2. OCLC 11604851. 
  72. ^ Helen, Johnson (2009) [1931]. Muni Samvegayashvijay Maharaj, ed. Trisastiśalākāpurusacaritra of Hemacandra: The Jain Saga (in English. Trans. From Prakrit). Part II. Baroda: Oriental Institute. ISBN 978-81-908157-0-3.  CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) refer story of Neminatha
  73. ^ "Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita". Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  74. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; On The Bhagavad Gita; A New Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Preface p.9
  75. ^ Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44.
  76. ^ Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88.

This content is from Wikipedia. GradeSaver is providing this content as a courtesy until we can offer a professionally written study guide by one of our staff editors. We do not consider this content professional or citable. Please use your discretion when relying on it.