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Ralph begins to show his maturity about when he sees that the basics of island life are not attended to. I would say that about chapter 3, Ralph sees there is a lack of water, no signal fire and general disorganization. Ralph quickly matures. He understands that no signal fire means death, not because they will starve or go thirsty but because they will destroy each other.
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Even though Ralph is in hiding, his realization that the fire Jack has set to smoke him out will change their entire existence gives him the strength to put himself in danger. Ralph knows that the fire would destroy the trees, and thus destroy the fruit, one of their basic food sources. This endangers their survival period..... everyone's survival.........
Lord of the Flies