Further reading


  • Russ, Joanna. "Books." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (Feb. 1980): 94-101.
  • Snyder, John C. "Kindred by Octavia E. Butler." SciFiDimensions. June 2004.


  • Beaulieu, Elizabeth Ann. "'So Many Relatives': Twentieth-Century Women Meet Their Pasts." Black Women Writers and the American Neo-Slave Narrative: Femininity Unfettered. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. 109-136.
  • Bast, Florian. "'No.': The Narrative Theorizing of Embodied Agency in Octavia Butler's Kindred." Extrapolation: A Journal of Science Fiction and Fantasy 53.2 (2012): 151-81.
  • Dubey, Madhu. "Speculative Fictions of Slavery." American Literature 82.4 (2010): 779-805.
  • Hua, Linh U. "Reproducing Time, Reproducing History: Love And Black Feminist Sentimentality in Octavia Butler's Kindred. African American Review 44.3 (2011): 391-407.
  • Jesser, Nancy. "Blood, Genes and Gender in Octavia Butler's Kindred and Dawn." Extrapolation 43.1 (2002): 36+.
  • Knabe, Susan and Wendy Gay Pearson. "'Gambling Against History': Queer Kinship and Cruel Optimism in Octavia Butler's Kindred." Strange Matings: Science Fiction, Feminism, African American Voices, and Octavia E. Butler. Ed. Rebecca J. Holden and Nisi Shawl. Seattle, WA : Aqueduct Press, 2013. 51-78.
  • LaCroix, David. “To Touch Solid Evidence: The Implicity of Past and Present in Octavia E. Butler's Kindred." The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 40.1 (Spring, 2007): 109-119.
  • Levecq, Christine. "Power and Repetition: Philosophies of (Literary) History in Octavia E. Butler’s Kindred." Contemporary Literature 41.3 (Fall 2000): 525-553.
  • Long, Lisa. "A Relative Pain: The Rape of History in Octavia Butler’s Kindred and Phyllis Alesia Perry's Stigmata.” College English 64.4 (Mar. 2002): 459-483.
  • McKible, Adam. "'These Are the Facts of the Darky's History': Thinking History and Reading Names in Four African American Texts." African American Review 28.2 (Summer 1994): 223-235.
  • Parham, Marisa. "Saying 'Yes': Textual Traumas in Octavia Butler's Kindred." Middle Eastern & North African Writers 32.4 (Winter 2009): 1315-1331.
  • Reed, Brian K. "Behold the Woman: The Imaginary Wife in Octavia Butler’s Kindred." CLA Journal Al (Sept. 2003): 66-74.
  • Spaulding, A. Timothy. "The Conflation of Time in Ishmael Reed’s Flight to Canada and Octavia Butler’s Kindred." Re-forming the Past: History, the Fantastic, and the Postmodern Slave Narrative. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2005. 25-60.
  • Tettenborn, Eva. "Teaching Imagined Testimony: Kindred, Unchained Memories, and The African Burial Ground in Manhattan." Transformations 16.2 (Fall 2005): 87-103.
  • Thompson, Carlyle van. "Moving Past the Present: Racialized Sexual Violence and Miscegenous Consumption in Octavia Butler’s Kindred." Eating the Black Body: Miscegenation as Sexual Consumption in African American Literature and Culture. New York: Peter Lang, 2006. 107-144. ISBN 0820479314 (10) ISBN 978-0820479316 (13)
  • Turner, Stephanie S. "'What Actually Is': The Insistence of Genre in Octavia Butler's Kindred." FEMSPEC 4.2 (2004): 259-280.
  • Wagers, Kelley. "Seeing 'From the Far Side of the Hill': Narrative, History, and Understanding in Kindred and The Chaneysville Incident." MELUS 34.1 (Spring, 2009): 23-45.
  • Wood, Sarah. "Exorcizing the Past: The Slave Narrative as Historical Fantasy." Feminist 85 (2007): 83-96.
  • Flagel, Nadine. "'It's Almost Like Being There': Speculative Fiction, Slave Narrative, and the Crisis of Representation in Octavia Butler's Kindred." Canadian Review of American Studies 42.2 (2012): 216-45.
  • Robertson, Benjamin. "'Some Matching Strangeness': Biology, Politics, and The Embrace of History in Octavia Butler's Kindred." Science Fiction Studies 37.3 (2010): 362-381.


  • VanMeenen, Karen, ed. Residue of Time: Poets Respond to Kindred. Rochester, NY: Writers & Books, 2003. [Part of Writers & Books' annual community-wide reading program "If All of Rochester Read the Same Book."]

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