Immanuel Kant: Major Works

Personal legacy

Kant always cut a curious figure in his lifetime for his rigorously scheduled habits, which have been referred to as clocklike, and Heinrich Heine once considered him as a philosophical Robespierre, who both "represented in the highest the type of provincial bourgeois...[who Fate] placed on the scales of the one a king, on the scales of the other a god."[116]

When he was exhumed for his body's transfer to a new burial spot, his skull was measured amidst his exhumation ceremony, and found to be larger than the average German male's with a "high and broad" forehead.[117] His forehead has been an object of interest ever since it became well-known through his portraits: “In Döbler’s portrait and in Kiefer’s faithful if expressionistic reproduction of it — as well as in many of the other late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century portraits of Kant — the forehead is remarkably large and decidedly retreating. Was Kant’s forehead shaped this way in these images because he was a philosopher, or, to follow the implications of Lavater’s system, was he a philosopher because of the intellectual acuity manifested by his forehead? Kant and Lavater were correspondents on theological matters, and Lavater cites Kant in the Physiognomy.”[118]

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