Immanuel Kant: Major Works


  1. ^ "Kant". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Immanuel Kant (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". 20 May 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  3. ^ Kant, Immanuel; Kitcher, Patricia (intro.); Pluhar, W. (trans.) (1996). Critique of Pure Reason. Indianapolis: Hackett. xxviii. 
  4. ^ Nigel Warburton (2011). "Chapter 19: Rose-tinted reality: Immanuel Kant". A little history of philosophy. Yale University Press. pp. 111 ff. ISBN 0300152086. 
  5. ^ "Cosmopolis". 23 April 2001. Retrieved 2009-07-24.  Kant's mother's name is sometimes erroneously given as Anna Regina Porter.
  6. ^ Paulsen, Friedrich (1902). Immanuel Kant: His Life and Doctrine. James Edwin Creighton, Albert Lefevre. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 27. Retrieved 2014-03-13. Kant's grandfather, Hans Kant (also Kand, not Cant), was a harness-maker at Memel [...] 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: a Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 26
  9. ^ Biographical information sourced from: Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: a Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-49704-3 the standard biography of Kant in English.
  10. ^ "While this sounds skeptical, Kant is only agnostic about our knowledge of metaphysical objects such as God. And, as noted above, Kant's agnosticism leads to the conclusion that we can neither affirm nor deny claims made by traditional metaphysics." Andrew Fiala, J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Critique of Pure Reason – Introduction, page xi.
  11. ^ Edward J. Verstraete (2008). Ed Hindson; Ergun Caner, eds. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 9780736920841. It is in this sense that modern atheism rests heavily upon the skepticism of David Hume and the agnosticism of Immanuel Kant. 
  12. ^ Norman L. Geisler; Frank Turek (2004). "Kant's Agnosticism: Should We Be Agnostic About It?". I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist. Crossway. pp. 59–60. ISBN 9781581345612. Immanuel Kant's impact has been even more devastating to the Christian worldview than David Hume's. For if Kant's philosophy is right, then there is no way to know anything about the real world, even empirically verifiable things! 
  13. ^ Gary D. Badcock (1997). Light of Truth and Fire of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 9780802842886. Kant has no interest in prayer or worship, and is in fact agnostic when it comes to such classical theological questions as the doctrine of God or of the Holy Spirit.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  14. ^ Norman L. Geisler, Paul K. Hoffman, ed. (2006). "The Agnosticism of Immanuel Kant". Why I Am a Christian: Leading Thinkers Explain Why They Believe. Baker Books. p. 45. ISBN 9780801067129.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  15. ^ Frank K. Flinn (2007). Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9780816075652. Following Locke, the classic agnostic claims not to accept more propositions than are warranted by empirical evidence. In this sense an agnostic appeals to Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), who claims in his Critique of Pure Reason that since God, freedom, immortality, and the soul can be both proved and disproved by theoretical reason, we ought to suspend judgement about them.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  16. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Trans. John T. Goldthwait. University of California Press, 1961, 2003. ISBN 0-520-24078-2
  17. ^ Lewis, Rick. 2005. 'Kant 200 Years On'. Philosophy Now. No. 49.
  18. ^ Karl Vorländer: Immanuel Kant - Bei Pfarrer Andersch in Judtschen
  19. ^ Karl Vorländer: Immanuel Kant - Bei Pfarrer Andersch in Judtschen
  20. ^ The American International Encyclopedia (New York: J.J. Little & Ives, 1954), Vol. IX.
  21. ^ "Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  22. ^ George Gamow, One, Two, Three... Infinity, pp. 300ff. Viking Press, 1954
  23. ^ Cf., for example, Susan Shell, The Embodiment of Reason (Chicago, 1996)
  24. ^
  25. ^ Christopher Kul-Want and Andrzej Klimowski, Introducing Kant (Cambridge: Icon Books, 2005). ISBN 1-84046-664-2
  26. ^ Copleston, Frederick Charles. The Enlightenment: Voltaire to Kant. 2003. p. 146.
  27. ^ Sassen, Brigitte. Kant's Early Critics: The Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy. 2000.
  28. ^ Ein Jahrhundert deutscher Literaturkritik, vol. III, Der Aufstieg zur Klassik in der Kritik der Zeit (Berlin, 1959), p. 315; as quoted in Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987.
  29. ^ Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987 pp. 28–9.
  30. ^ Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987, p. 62.
  31. ^ a b c d e Derrida Vacant Chair p. 44.
  32. ^ "Open letter by Kant denouncing Fichte's Philosophy (in German)". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  33. ^ Peirce, C.S., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, v.1, (HUP, 1960), 'Kant and his Refutation of Idealism' p. 15
  34. ^ Kant, Immanuel, Logic, G.B. Jäsche (ed), R.S. Hartman, W. Schwarz (translators), Indianapolis, 1984, p. xv.
  35. ^ Karl Vorländer, Immanuel Kant: Der Mann und das Werk, Hamburg: Meiner, 1992, p. II 332.
  36. ^ McAleer, Sean. "Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. Ethics". Heythrop Journal
  37. ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A801.
  38. ^ The Science of Right, Conclusion.
  39. ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A811.
  40. ^ In the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason Kant refers to space as "no discursive or...general conception of the relation of things, but a pure intuition" and maintained that "We can only represent to ourselves one space". The "general notion of spaces...depends solely upon limitations" (Meikeljohn trans., A25). In the second edition of the CPR, Kant adds, "The original representation of space is an a priori intuition, not a concept" (Kemp Smith trans., B40). In regard to time, Kant states that "Time is not a discursive, or what is called a general concept, but a pure form of sensible intuition. Different times are but parts of one and the same time; and the representation which can be given only through a single object is intuition" (A31/B47). For the differences in the discursive use of reason according to concepts and its intuitive use through the construction of concepts, see Critique of Pure Reason (A719/B747 ff. and A837/B865). On "One and the same thing in space and time" and the mathematical construction of concepts, see A724/B752.
  41. ^ "Kant, Immanuel definition of Kant, Immanuel in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ The German word Anschauung, which Kant used, literally means 'looking at' and generally means what in philosophy in English is called "perception". However it sometimes is rendered as "intuition": not, however, with the vernacular meaning of an indescribable or mystical experience or sixth sense, but rather with the meaning of the direct perception or grasping of sensory phenomena. In this article, both terms, "perception" and "intuition" are used to stand for Kant's Anschauung.
  45. ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason [1781], trans. Norman Kemp Smith (N.Y.: St. Martins, 1965), A 51/B 75.
  46. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Ed. Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. p. 248.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to perhaps Any Future Metaphysics, pages 35 to 43.
  48. ^ Deleuze on Kant, from where the definitions of a priori and a posteriori were obtained.
  49. ^ Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, pages 35 to 43.
  50. ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment, the Introduction to the Hackett edition.
  51. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Lewis White Beck. Page numbers citing this work are Beck's marginal numbers that refer to the page numbers of the standard edition of Königliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1902–38.
  52. ^ The distinction between rational and philosophical knowledge is given in the Preface to the Groundwork, 1785.
  53. ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 421.
  54. ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A806/B834.
  55. ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 408.
  56. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 420–1.
  57. ^ a b c d Kant, Foundations, p. 436.
  58. ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) Ecosystems and Well-being: A Framework for Assessment. Washington DC: Island Press, p. 142.
  59. ^ "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch: Appendix 1". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  60. ^ Project for a Perpetual Peace, p. 61. 1796. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  61. ^ Immanuel Kant's Werke, revidirte Gesammtausg, p. 456. 1838. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  62. ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 437.
  63. ^ "Kant and the German Enlightenment" in "History of Ethics". Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. 3, pp. 95–96. MacMillan, 1973.
  64. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 400, 429.
  65. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 437–8.
  66. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 438–9. See also Kingdom of Ends
  67. ^ a b Immanuel Kant. Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone (1793), Book IV, Part 1, Section 1, "The Christian religion as a natural religion."
  68. ^ "Kant's Philosophy of Religion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  69. ^ The Norman Kemp Smith translation has been used for this section, with citation noting the pagination of the first and second editions.
  70. ^ a b Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A448/B476.
  71. ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A534/B562.
  72. ^ the same distinction of transcendental and practical meaning can be applied to the idea of God, with the proviso that the practical concept of freedom can be experienced (Critique of Pure Reason, A801-804/B829-832).
  73. ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A800–2/B828–30.
  74. ^ The concept of freedom is also handled in the third section of the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. In the Critique of Practical Reason see § VII and § VIII.
  75. ^ 5:65–67
  76. ^ Susanne Bobzien, 'Die Kategorien der Freiheit bei Kant', in Kant: Analysen, Probleme, Kritik Vol.1, 1988, 193–220.
  77. ^ Critique of Judgment in "Kant, Immanuel" Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol 4. Macmillan, 1973.
  78. ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A22/B36.
  79. ^ Beardsley, Monroe. "History of Aesthetics". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1, section on "Toward a unified aesthetics", p. 25, Macmillan 1973. Baumgarten coined the term "aesthetics" and expanded, clarified, and unified Wolffian aesthetic theory, but had left the Aesthetica unfinished (See also: Tonelli, Giorgio. "Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1, Macmillan 1973). In Bernard's translation of the Critique of Judgment he indicates in the notes that Kant's reference in § 15 in regard to the identification of perfection and beauty is probably a reference to Baumgarten.
  80. ^ German Idealism in "History of Aesthetics" Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol 1. Macmillan, 1973.
  81. ^ Kant's general discussions of the distinction between "cognition" and "conscious of" are also given in the Critique of Pure Reason (notably A320/B376), and section V and the conclusion of section VIII of his Introduction in Logic.
  82. ^ Clewis, Robert (2009). "The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  83. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Idea for a Universal History. Trans. Lewis White Beck (20, 22). Page numbers are Beck's marginal numbers that refer to the page numbers of the standard edition of Königliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1902–38.
  84. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Idea for a Universal History. Trans. Lewis White Beck (26).
  85. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795)
  86. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace. Trans. Lewis White Beck (377).
  87. ^ Manfred Riedel Between Tradition and Revolution: The Hegelian Transformation of Political Philosophy, Cambridge 1984
  88. ^ History of Political Philosophy, edited by Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 581–582, 603
  89. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace. Trans. Lewis White Beck (352).
  90. ^ Thomas Sturm, Kant und die Wissenschaften vom Menschen (Paderborn: Mentis Verlag, 2009).
  91. ^ Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, ed. Robert B. Louden, introduction by Manfred Kuehn, Cambridge University Press, 2006
  92. ^ gregor, brian. "Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. By Immanuel Kant. Translated and edited by Robert B. Louden.". Heythrop. 
  93. ^ Prof. Oliver A. Johnson claims that, "With the possible exception of Plato's Republic, (Critique of Pure Reason) is the most important philosophical book ever written." Article on Kant within the collection "Great thinkers of the Western World", Ian P. McGreal, Ed., HarperCollins, 1992.
  94. ^ See Stephen Palmquist, "The Architectonic Form of Kant's Copernican Logic", Metaphilosophy 17:4 (October 1986), pp. 266–288; revised and reprinted as Chapter III of Kant's System of Perspectives: An architectonic interpretation of the Critical philosophy (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993).
  95. ^ "Kant, Immanuel". Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  96. ^ There is much debate in the recent scholarship about the extent to which Fichte and Schelling actually overstep the boundaries of Kant's critical philosophy, thus entering the realm of dogmatic or pre-Critical philosophy. Beiser's German Idealism discusses some of these issues. Beiser, Frederick C. German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781–1801. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
  97. ^ Hegel, Natural Law: The Scientific Ways of Treating Natural Law, Its Place in Moral Philosophy, and Its Relation to the Positive Sciences. trans. T. M. Knox. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975. Hegel's mature view and his concept of "ethical life" is elaborated in his Philosophy of Right. Hegel, Philosophy of Right. trans. T. M. Knox. Oxford University Press, 1967.
  98. ^ Robert Pippin's Hegel's Idealism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) emphasizes the continuity of Hegel's concerns with Kant's. Robert Wallace, Hegel's Philosophy of Reality, Freedom, and God (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) explains how Hegel's Science of Logic defends Kant's idea of freedom as going beyond finite "inclinations", contra skeptics such as David Hume.
  99. ^ Englefield, Ronald, Kant as Defender of the Faith in Nineteenth-century England", Question, 12, 16–27, (Pemberton, London)
  100. ^ Englefield, Ronald, Critique of Pure Verbiage, Essays on Abuses of Language in Literary, Religious, and Philosophical Writings, edited by G. A. Wells and D. R. Oppenheimer, Open Court, 1990.
  101. ^ Beck, Lewis White. "Neo-Kantianism". In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 5–6. Macmillan, 1973. Article on Neo-Kantianism by a translator and scholar of Kant.
  102. ^ Cerf, Walter. "Nicolai Hartmann". In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 3–4. Macmillan, 1973. Nicolai was a realist who later rejected the idealism of Neo-Kantianism, his anti-Neo-Kantian views emerging with the publication of the second volume of Hegel (1929).
  103. ^ Schlegel, Friedrich. "Athenaeum Fragments", in Philosophical Fragments. Trans. Peter Firchow. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. See especially fragments Nos. 1, 43, 44.
  104. ^ Greenberg, Clement. "Modernist Painting", in The Philosophy of Art, ed. Alex Neill and Aaron Ridley, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
  105. ^ See "Essential Works of Foucault: 1954–1984 vol.2: Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology." ed by James Faubion, Trans. Robert Hurley et al. New York City, New York: The New Press, 1998 (2010 reprint). See essay "Foucault by Maurice Florence" entry by Foucault submitted under pseudonym.
  106. ^ For a discussion and qualified defense of this position, see Stephen Palmquist, "A Priori Knowledge in Perspective: (I) Mathematics, Method and Pure Intuition", The Review of Metaphysics 41:1 (September 1987), pp. 3–22.
  107. ^ Körner, Stephan, The Philosophy of Mathematics, Dover, 1986. For an analysis of Kant's writings on mathematics see, Friedman, Michael, Kant and the Exact Sciences, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
  108. ^ Ray, James Lee. Does Democracy Cause Peace? Annual Review of Political Science 1998. 1:27–46.
  109. ^ Strawson, P. F., The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Routledge: 2004. When first published in 1966, this book forced many Anglo-American philosophers to reconsider Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
  110. ^ Sellars, Wilfrid, Science and Metaphysics: Variations on Kantian Themes. Ridgeview Publishing Company, 1967
  111. ^ Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-49644-6, ISBN 0-521-49962-3 (pbk.) Not a commentary, but a defense of a broadly Kantian approach to ethics
  112. ^ Brook, Andrew. Kant and the Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. See also, Meerbote, R. "Kant's Functionalism". In: J. C. Smith, ed. Historical Foundations of Cognitive Science. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel, 1991. Brook has an article on Kant's View of the Mind in the Stanford Encyclopedia
  113. ^ See Habermas, J. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Trans. Christian Lenhardt and Shierry Weber Nicholsen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. For Rawls see, Rawls, John. Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. Rawls has a well-known essay on Kant's concept of good. See, Rawls, "Themes in Kant's Moral Philosophy" in Kant's Transcendental Deductions. Ed. Eckart Förster. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989.
  114. ^ Habermas, J. (1994): The Unity of Reason in the Diversity of Its Voices. In: Habermas, J. (Eds.): Postmetaphysical Thinking. Political Essays, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 115–148.
  115. ^ Issacson, Walter. "Einstein: His Life and Universe." p. 20.
  116. ^ "Heine on Immanuel Kant" (PDF). Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  117. ^ Examined Lives, From Socrates to Nietzsche, James Miller p.284
  118. ^ Immanuel Kant and the Bo(a)rders of Art History Mark Cheetham, in The Subjects of Art History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspectives, p. 16
  119. ^ Immanuel Kant. "The Critique of Pure Reason". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  120. ^ Immanuel Kant (20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  121. ^
  122. ^ Frank-Christian Lilienweihs (10 June 1999). "Immanuel Kant: Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklaerung?". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  123. ^ "Critique of Pure Reason". 31 October 2003. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  124. ^ "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". 20 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  125. ^
  126. ^ Immanuel Kant (20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  127. ^ s:The Critique of Judgement
  128. ^ Immanuel Kant. "Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone by Immanuel Kant 1793". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  129. ^ "Immanuel Kant, "Perpetual Peace"". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  130. ^ "Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden, 12.02.2004 (Friedensratschlag)". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  131. ^ "Kant, The Contest of Faculties". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  132. ^ Immanuel Kant (20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  133. ^
  134. ^ As noted by Allen Wood in his Introduction, p.12. Wood further speculates that the lectures themselves were delivered in the Winter of 1783–84.

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