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Like most philosophy in the ancient world, stoicism can be traced directly to the language of Plato and Aristotle. In this case, I'd argue that the latter has more influence for this reason: namely, that Aristotle's God (the Unmoved Mover) is precisely the sort of God that Stoicism worships. He (or perhaps 'It') is unmoved, uncaused, and unwaivering in his will to contemplate himself. This is the goal of Stoicism--to endure the hardships of a changing world in an unchanging way.