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Like many other authors, Swift uses the journey as the backdrop for his satire. The various settings provide the satirical material to expose the socio-political folly of England and Europe. He invents a second author, Captain Lemuel Gulliver, who narrates and speaks directly to the reader from his own experience. The original title of Swift's novel was Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships. Even though Swift constantly alludes to events that were happening while he was alive, the story rings true today, bringing light to our own societal issues and to patterns of human nature. Throughout Gulliver's voyages, Swift goes to great lengths to scrutinize, parody, and satire various aspects of human, and often English, society. He does this in two ways, first by comparing humanity's ways with those of cultures decidedly beneath it (such as the Yahoos and the Lilliputians); second, by comparing humanity with cultures that are far superior in intellect and political ideals (such as the Houyhnhnms).