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Grendel observes the development of man’s society. He criticizes human wastefulness in slaying animals they do not eat, and wonders at man’s ability to wage war against his fellow humans. Grendel himself is disturbed that he is in some way related to human beings (a fact he ascertains from their common language). He watches the rise of Hrothgar, as the Dane puts an end to fighting his neighbors and instead consolidates the nearby villages into a collection of vassals who pay tribute to him. He offers them protection from their more distant enemies in exchange for riches and possessions. After eventually tiring of the inefficiency inherent in transporting tributes across such unwelcoming terrain, Hrothgar calls for a tribute of labor to build roads throughout the land, thereby unifying the territories even more.