goethe's faust part one
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This scene is both a microcosm of the entire Faustian myth as well as a metaphor for the transformation of humanity from the bounds of Christendom into the Age of Enlightenment. As a microcosm of the entire play, the scene works by first introducing Faust in his study, reading the great wisdom of the ages, which ultimately leaves him unsatisfied. He then encounters the supernatural, with whom he makes a pact. The scene then ends with Faust’s ultimate continued discontentment and the feeling that he has been tricked into a great loss. The entirety of the play follows a narrative arc encapsulated in this scene.
This excerpt is from the "analysis" section of my GradeSaver link below. It directly addresses your question,