Chapter 16 of Frankenstein

what happens that makes the creature finally despair (after his new plan)?

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At the end of Chapter 15, the creature speaks to Mr. De Lacey and bares his soul to the old man: he tells him that he is a wretched outcast, and that the De Laceys are his only friends in all the world. De Lacey is astonished, but Safie, Felix, and Agatha burst into the cottage before he can reply to the creature's entreaty. The women scream in terror, and Felix, in a "transport of fury," violently beats the creature with his walking stick. The creature, his heart still full of love for the De Laceys, cannot bring himself to retaliate. Instead, he flees the cottage and takes refuge in his hovel.

Thus, in the beginning of Chapter 16, we find the creature cursing his creator for giving him life. Only his great rage, and his consuming desire for revenge, keeps him from taking his own life: he longs to "spread havoc and destruction around [him], and then to [sit down] and enjoy the ruin."

He falls upon the ground in utter despair and, at that moment, declares war upon all mankind for its callousness and cruelty. He vows to exact revenge upon his creator ­ the man who "sent [him] forth into this insupportable misery."