It can be more than one but I only need the major issue in the novel.
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I think immigration would be a major issue. Though the book is centered around Enrique's journey, its larger purpose is to examine the various approaches to immigration, in hopes of creating social awareness. Nazario's intention, clearly stated in her prologue, is manifest in the way she juxtaposes the protagonist's tale with interviews and details of other migrants and the many institutions they encounter on their journeys. By the end of the book, Nazario is directly confronting the questions of immigration. In the afteword, she examines how immigration affects the economy, the family unit, the community, and institutions like public schools. She is not interested in answering questions, but rather in asking them. This approach makes sense considering the complicated factors she explores through Enrique's journey - so much is at stake for both these individuals and their communities that a simple answer would surely ring false.