The film was nominated for four Academy Awards and also seven BAFTA Awards, of which it won four.
- Academy Awards nominations
- Best Actor in a Leading Role: Peter Sellers
- Best Adapted Screenplay: Stanley Kubrick, Peter George, Terry Southern
- Best Director: Stanley Kubrick
- Best Picture
- BAFTA Awards
- Best British Actor: Peter Sellers (nom)
- Best British Art Direction (Black and White): Ken Adam (won)
- Best British Film (won)
- Best British Screenplay: Stanley Kubrick, Peter George, Terry Southern (nom)
- Best Film From Any Source (won)
- Best Foreign Actor: Sterling Hayden (nom)
- UN award
In addition, the film won the best written American comedy award from the Writers Guild of America, a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, and the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association.
Kubrick won two awards for best director, from the New York Film Critics Circle and the Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists, and was nominated for one by the Directors Guild of America.
The film ranked #32 on TV Guide's list of the 50 Greatest Movies on TV (and Video).
- American Film Institute recognition
- 1998: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #26
- 2000: AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs – #3
- 2003: AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains:
- Brigadier General Jack D. Ripper – Nominated Villain
- Dr. Strangelove – Nominated Villain
- 2005: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "Gentlemen, you can't fight in here! This is the War Room!" – #64
- "Mein Führer! I can walk!" – Nominated
- 2007: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #39