The author uses excerpts from other books, poems and speeches within the novel itself or to signify the start of a new section of the novel.

  • Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë.[16]
  • The Philippines by Jean Mallat.[17]
  • Poetry by Jose Rizal.[18]
  • President William McKinleys "Address to a Delegation of Methodist Churchmen"[19] which provides the stereotypical view Americans have had of Filipinos.

The novel refers to a number of major films:

  • All That Heaven Allows[20]
  • A Place in the Sun[21]
  • Bundle of Joy[21]
  • "Jailhouse Rock" by Elvis Presley[21]
  • Florante at Laura by Francisco Balagtas[22]
  • Rebel Without a Cause[22]
  • The Agony of Love
  • The Ten Commandments

The novel also refers to a number of iconic American figures:

Actor Page Number
Shirley Temple page 88
Barbra Streisand page 76
Anita Ekberg page 87
Rita Hayworth pages 79 and 87
Audrey Hepburn page 237
Elizabeth Taylor pages 15 and 17
Elvis Presley page 222
Sal Mineo page 51

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