Chapter 5 of Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville
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I gather, from chapter 5, that decentralization gives citizens more control and autonomy over their own affairs. Separate states almost work as separate countries within the nation. This gives people and regions power to guide their own fortunes with limited interference from a bureaucratic centralized power. American thus develop an attitude of individual responsibility rather than relying on a centralized institution to look after them. Take a look at GradeSaver's summaries as well. They are pretty good!
Oh, here is a source-link to the GradeSaver Site.