Death and the King's Horseman is a play by Wole Soyinka based on a real incident that took place in Nigeria during British colonial rule: the horseman of a Yoruban King was prevented from committing ritual suicide by the colonial authorities. In addition to the British intervention, Soyinka calls the horseman's own conviction toward suicide into question, posing a problem that throws off the community's balance.
Soyinka wrote the play in Cambridge, where he was a fellow at Churchill College during his political exile from Nigeria. He has also written a preface to the play, explaining what he sees as the greatest misconceptions in understanding it. In particular, he says that the play should not be considered as "clash of cultures." Rather, the play demonstrates the need for interaction between African and European cultures, as per Soyinka's post-Biafran cultural philosophy.
Plot 'Death and the King's Horseman builds upon the true story which Soyinka based the play off of, to focus on the character of Elesin, the King's Horseman of the title. According to Yoruba tradition, the death of the king must be followed by the ritual death of the king's horseman as well as the king's dog and horse, because the horseman's spirit is essential to helping the chief's spirit ascend to the afterlife. Otherwise, the king's spirit will wander the earth and bring harm to the Yoruba people. The first half of the play documents the process of this ritual, with the potent, life-loving figure Elesin living out his final day in celebration before the ritual process begins. At the last minute, the local British colonial ruler, Simon Pilings, intervenes, the suicide being viewed as barbaric and illegal by the British authorities.
In the play, the result for the community is catastrophic, as the breaking of the ritual means the disruption of the cosmic order of the universe and thus the well-being and future of the collectivity is in doubt. The community blames Elesin as much as Pilkings, accusing him of being too attached to the earth to fulfill his spiritual obligations. Events lead to tragedy when Elesin's son, Olunde, who has returned to Nigeria from studying medicine in Europe, takes on the responsibility of his father and commits ritual suicide in his place so as to restore the honour of his family and the order of the universe. Consequently, Elesin kills himself, condemning his soul to a degraded existence in the next world. In addition, the dialogue of the native suggests that this may have been insufficient and that the world is now "adrift in the void".
Another Nigerian playwright, Duro Ladipo, had already written a play in the Yoruba language based on this incident, called Oba waja ("The King is Dead").Themes and motifs
- Anti-colonialism is considered a theme by some scholars based on aspects of the text, but Soyinka specifically calls the colonial factors "an incident, a catalytic incident merely" in the "Author's Note" prepended to the play.
Almost every character in Death and the King's Horseman at some point uses a traditional Yoruba proverb. Through his vast knowledge of Yoruba proverbs, Soyinka is able to endow his play with a strong Yoruba sentiment.
Characters often employ Yoruba proverbs primarily as a means of bolstering their opinions and persuading others to take their point of view.
The Praise-singer gets annoyed with Elesin for his decision to take a new wife and tries to dissuade him:
- Because the man approaches a brand-new bride he forgets the long faithful mother of his children.
Similarly, Iyaloja tries to admonish Elesin against his earthly attachments and stay true to the ritual upon which the good of his society depended:
- Eating the awusa nut is not so difficult as drinking water afterwards.
- Ati je asala [awusa] ko to ati mu omi si i.:201
Another common way in which Soyinka uses proverbs is with Elesin. Elesin himself uses several proverbs in order to convince his peers that he is going to comply with their ritual and thus join the ancestors in orun:
- The kite makes for wide spaces and the wind creeps up behind its tail; can the kite say less than thank you, the quicker the better?
- Awodi to'o nre Ibara, efufu ta a n'idi pa o ni Ise kuku ya.:202
- The elephant trails no tethering-rope; that king is not yet crowned who will peg an elephant.
- Ajanaku kuro ninn 'mo ri nkan firi, bi a ba ri erin ki a ni a ri erin:202
- The river is never so high that the eyes of a fish are covered.
- Odu ki ikun bo eja l'oju:202
The final way in which proverbs appear in the play is when Iyaloja and the Praise-singer harass Elesin while he is imprisoned for failing to complete his role within the ritual:
- What we have no intention of eating should not be held up to the nose.
- Ohun ti a ki i je a ki ifif run imu:202
- We said you were the hunter returning home in triumph, a slain buffalo pressing down on his neck; you said wait, I first must turn up this cricket hole with my toes.
- A ki i ru eran erin lori ki a maa f'ese wa ire n'ile:202
- The river which fills up before our eyes does not sweep us away in its flood.
- Odo ti a t'oju eni kun ki igbe 'ni lo:202
Written in five scenes, it is performed without interruption. Soyinka himself has directed important American productions, in Chicago in 1976 and at Lincoln Center in New York in 1987, but according to Andrew Gumbel, the play "has been much more widely admired than performed".
The British premiere was directed by Phyllida Lloyd at the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester in 1990. It starred George Harris and Claire Benedict.
The play was performed at London's Royal National Theatre beginning in April 2009, directed by Rufus Norris, with choreography by Javier de Frutos and starring Lucian Msamati. The play was also staged by the St. Louis Black Repertory Theater February 2008, directed by Olusegun Ojewuyi, who has been dramaturge for the Oregon Shakespeare's production. It was performed at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival from February 14 to July 5, 2009 as well. A Yoruba translation Iku Olokun Esin was also performed at the National Theater, Lagos Nigeria, directed by Olusegun Ojewuyi (thus making him the first and only director to have staged the play in both English and in Yoruba – the language and culture of the play.
In 1988 the play was produced by the Addison Center Theatre in Dallas, Texas, under the direction of Clinton Turner Davis. Davis had previously served as stage manager for the Lincoln Center production.Translations
Russian: by Andrey Kistyakovsky, 1987See also
- Yoruba religion
- Yoruba literature
- Postcolonial literature
- List of Nigerian writers
- ^ a b Gale (January 2006). Marie Rose Napierkowski, ed. "Death and the King's Horseman: Introduction. Drama for Students". eNotes. Detroit. 10. Retrieved 23 January 2009. (registration required)
- ^ a b c d Gumbel, Andrew (8 April 2009). "Wole Soyinka on how he came to write Death and the King's Horseman". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- ^ The concise Oxford companion to English literature. Birch, Dinah,, Hooper, Katy,, Oxford University Press. (Fourth ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2013. ISBN 9780191744556. OCLC 849653968.
- ^ Soyinka, Wole (2002). Death and the King's Horseman. W.W. Norton. p. 5. ISBN 0-393-32299-8.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Richards, David. Death and the King's Horseman and the Masks of Language. Excerpt from: Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King's Horseman: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton & Company, 2003. Pp. 196-207.
- ^ "The Literary Encyclopedia". Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Death and the King's Horseman". Oregon Shakespeare Festival. Ashland, OR. 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^ "Бессмертные" (in Russian). BRICS Business Magazine. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- McLuckie, Craig, The Structural Coherence of Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman, College Literature, Spring 2004.