The Question and Answer section for Civil Disobedience is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
The first group is soldiers or war type men, "the militia, jailers, constables, posse comitatus, etc." These men do not think. They are told by the state exactly what to do. The second group is made up of lawyers and legislators and ministers who...
What claim are you referring to? He makes many claims.
He has a number of arguments. I think his main argument focuses on the need for man to take care of himself with as little government interference, and taxes, as possible.