simile, metaphors, personification.
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The Wasteland uses figurative language nonstop. It's full of metaphor - water in "Death by Water" functions best when compared to the aridity of the lakebed in the final section, giving water a sense of empty relief from destruction. There is constantly a connection between the mundane and the surreal - which suggests that they speak to one another. Consider the first stanza of "The Fire Sermon," which links "the rattle of the bones" to "the sounds of horns and motors," implicity. In the fourth stanza of that section is a simile - "like a taxi throbbing waiting," and you can find a ton more. The poem is more figurative than literal, to be exact.