In the Poem, the term slaves are in the last stanza, who in present-day American might Lowell view as slaves in this sense?
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Lowell believes that anyone unwilling to stand up for what is right in their heart because they're frightened is a slave. Being frightened makes an individual a slave to the majority.
In Section four of the poem Lowell establishes his opinions on what makes a slave.
People are slaves if they are frightened to speak up for others who are too weak to speak for themselves; they are slaves if their voices are quiet due to fear of hatred or abuse being turned their way, and they are slaves if they are frightened of being a part of the minority rather than the majority. These are the people he would view as slaves in the present day.