Internal or external
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Let’s remember that Buck is a dog. Still London does his best to give us some strong internal conflicts as far as a dog may interpret them.
Chapter 1- Manuel, the gardener, sells Buck to a man. Thus Buck is sold off to a series of men on a journey that culminates in the wild Klondike. There is, of course, the external conflict between Buck and his various captors. Internally Buck is taken out of his pampered setting against his will. He is angry and confused.
Chapter 2- Buck sees the other dogs and men are violent. The dogs are trying to establish dominance. This is new to Buck. He must quickly adapt to this new way of life. I suppose Buck instinctively knows that either he asserts himself or becomes subservient or even killed.
Chapter 3-Buck battles another dominant dog named Spitz. Buck finally prevails making him the Alpha-dog. Externally this is man vs man or rather dog vs dog. Internally Buck has to be fearless to beat Spitz.