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John asserts that happiness is a punishment for men because they have overindulged in their pleasant vices. Mustapha argues that, by their society's standards, each man is happy and perfect as he is. The discussion continues, as Mustapha condemns self-denial as bad for the economy and opposed to happiness, chastity as leading to passion, and passion as causing instability. Mustapha understands nobility and heroics as only existing where political instability reigns, which is unnecessary.