Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics

What are the five “improper” meanings of courage that Aristotle lists in Book III?


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(1) The courage of the citizen-soldier, which is improper only insofar as it is fails to meet the standards of the war-hero in general; (2) the courage of knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge; (3) passion; (4) sanguineness or confidence; and (5) people who are ignorant of the dangers they are facing.