Alice in Wonderland


Cinema and television

The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations which have multiplied as the original work is now in the public domain in all jurisdictions. The following list is of direct adaptations of Adventures in Wonderland (sometimes merging it with Through the Looking-Glass), not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works (such as Tim Burton's 2010 film Alice in Wonderland):

  • Alice in Wonderland (1903), a British silent film directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow, with May Clark as Alice
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910), a silent film directed by Edwin Stanton Porter
  • Alice in Wonderland (1915), a silent film directed by W. W. Young
  • Alice in Wonderland (1931), the first talkie adaptation, directed by Bud Pollard
  • Alice in Wonderland (1933), a film version directed by Norman Z. McLeod, US
  • Alice in Wonderland (1937), a TV adaptation directed by George More O'Ferrall
  • Alice (1946), a BBC production starring Vivian Pickles directed by George More O'Ferrall, UK
  • Alice in Wonderland (1949), a live-action/animated film with stop motion segments, directed by Dallas Bower
  • Alice in Wonderland (1950), televised on the CBS Ford Theatre, with Iris Mann as Alice, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner
  • Alice in Wonderland (1951), a film version in traditional animation from Walt Disney Animation Studios. Arguably the most well known of the Alice film adaptations, and today considered one of Disney's great classics.[46]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1955), a live television adaptation of the 1932 Eva LeGallienne /Florida Friebus stage adaptation of the novel, directed for television by George Schaefer for the Hallmark Hall of Fame
  • Alice in Wonderland (1965), a TV movie directed by Dennis Potter
  • Alice in Wonderland (1966), an animated Hanna-Barbera TV movie with Janet Waldo as Alice
  • Alice in Wonderland (1966), a BBC television play directed by Jonathan Miller
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972), a musical film version starring Fiona Fullerton as Alice
  • Alice in Wonderland (1976), a porn-musical by Bud Townsend
  • Alice in Wonderland (1983), a PBS Great Performances presentation of a 1982 stage play which was in turn a revival of the 1932 LeGallienne production
  • Alice in Wonderland (1985), a two-part made-for-TV special produced by Irwin Allen and featuring a large all-star cast
  • Alice in Wonderland (1986), a BBC adaptation directed by Barry Letts and starring Kate Dorning
  • Alice (1988 film) by Jan Švankmajer, stop motion and live action
  • Alice in Wonderland (1999), a 1999 television movie first shown on NBC and then shown on British television on Channel 4
  • (2015) An English Manchester International Festival Musical adaptation developed by Damon Albarn, Rufus Norris, and Moira Buffini.

Comic books

The book has also inspired numerous comic book adaptations:

  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Dell Comics, 1951)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Gold Key Comics, 1965)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Whitman, 1984)
  • "The Complete Alice in Wonderland" (Dynamite Entertainment, 2005)
  • "Return to Wonderland" (Zenescope Entertainment, 2009)
  • "Alice in Wonderland" (Zenescope Entertainment, 2011)

Electronic media

In 2010 Atomic Antelope produced a popular adaptation called Alice for the iPad.[47]


Alice has inspired numerous songs and albums, including Jefferson Airplane's song "White Rabbit", written by Grace Slick, and included on their 1967 psychedelic album Surrealistic Pillow.

Marilyn Manson described his 2007 album "EAT ME, DRINK ME" as "[his] version of Alice in Wonderland."

The song Alice in Wonderland by Sammy Fain and Bob Hilliard appears on the Bill Evans trio album Sunday at the Village Vanguard.[48]

The Tom Waits album, Alice, is loosely based on Carroll's relationship with Alice Liddell and themes from the novels. [49]


The book has inspired several parodies including The Westminster Alice (1902) by Hector Hugh Munro (Saki), illustrated by Francis Carruthers Gould.

Live performance

A relatively early example of a live performance is Alice in Wonderland, a musical play by H. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music), which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London.

As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognised works, they have also inspired numerous live performances, including plays, operas, ballets, and traditional English pantomimes. These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. An example of the latter is The Eighth Square, a murder mystery set in Wonderland, written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. Macpherson. This goth-toned rock musical premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth, England. The TA Fantastika, a popular Black light theatre in Prague performs "Aspects of Alice"; written and directed by Petr Kratochvíl. This adaptation is not faithful to the books, but rather explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic.

Over the years, many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in Alice productions. Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in 1932; this production has been revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. One of the most well-known American productions was Joseph Papp's 1980 staging of Alice in Concert at the Public Theater in New York City. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. Based on both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Meryl Streep played Alice, the White Queen, and Humpty Dumpty. The cast also included Debbie Allen, Michael Jeter, and Mark Linn-Baker. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a loose adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. A community theater production of Alice was Olivia de Havilland's first foray onto the stage.

Similarly, the 1992 operatic production Alice used both Alice books as its inspiration. It also employs scenes with Charles Dodgson, a young Alice Liddell, and an adult Alice Liddell, to frame the story. Paul Schmidt wrote the play, with Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. Although the original production in Hamburg, Germany, received only a small audience, Tom Waits released the songs as the album Alice in 2002.

A musical adaption of the novel was written by Michael Sirotta and Heather M. Dominick in 1997. It was titled Alice in Wonderland, a Musical Adventure and appears to be suitable for young actors as well as for adult performers.[50][51]

A ballet by Christopher Wheeldon[52] and Nicholas Wright[53] commissioned for The Royal Ballet entitled "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" premiered in February 2011 at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London. The ballet was based on the novel Wheeldon grew up reading as a child and is generally faithful to the original story, although some critics claimed it may have been too faithful.[54] The ballet overall stays generally light hearted for its running time of an hour and forty minutes. The ballet returned to the Royal Opera House in 2012.[55]

The latest adaption is the 2015 musical, with music by Damon Albarn[56] and lyrics by Moira Buffini.[57] The musical is a co-production between the Manchester International Festival, the Royal National Theatre and the Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris.[58]

Works influenced

Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day, sometimes indirectly via the Disney movie, for example. The character of the plucky, yet proper, Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice in homage.

Illustrations of the different books

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