Alfarabi, The Political Writings


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Gutas, Dimitri. "Farabi". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved April 4, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Corbin, Henry; Hossein Nasr; Utman Yahya (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2. 
  3. ^ a b c d Dhanani, Alnoor (2007). "Fārābī: Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Tarkhān al‐Fārābī". In Thomas Hockey et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 356–7. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0.  (PDF version)
  4. ^ Brague, Rémi; Brague, Remi (1998). "Athens, Jerusalem, Mecca: Leo Strauss's "Muslim" Understanding of Greek Philosophy". Poetics Today 19 (2): 235–259. doi:10.2307/1773441. ISSN 0333-5372. JSTOR 1773441. 
  5. ^ Alternative names and translations from Arabic include: Alfarabi, Farabi, Avenassar, and Abunaser.
  6. ^ Reisman, D.(ed.)Before and After Avicenna. Princeton, NJ. 2001
  7. ^ DANIEL BALLAND, "FĀRYĀB" in Encyclopedia Iranica [1]. excerpt: "Fāryāb (also Pāryāb), common Persian toponym meaning “lands irrigated by diversion of river water"
  8. ^ Dehkhoda Dictionary under "Parab" excerpt: "پاراب . (اِ مرکب ) زراعتی که به آب چشمه و کاریز ورودخانه و مانند آن کنند مَسقوی . آبی . مقابل دیم" (translation: "Lands irrigated by diversion of river water, springs and qanats.")
  9. ^ "C. E. Bosworth, "OTRĀR" in Encyclopedia Iranica". 2002-07-20. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  10. ^ al-Fārābī. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  11. ^ Lessons with Texts by Alfarabi. "D. Gutas, "AlFarabi" in Barthaolomew's World accessed Feb 18, 2010". Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  12. ^ David C. Reisman, "Al-Farabi and the philosophical curriculum", in Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor, The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 53.
  13. ^ F. Abiola Irele/Biodun Jeyifo, "Farabi", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought, Vol. 1, p. 379.
  14. ^ Ebn Abi Osaybea, Oyun al-anba fi tabaqat at-atebba, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1299/1882. وكان ابوه قائد جيش وهو فارسي المنتسب
  15. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Amin Razavi. "An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Vol. 1: From Zoroaster to Umar Khayyam", I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2007. Pg 134: "Ibn Nadim in his al-Fihrist, which is the first work to mention Farabi considers him to be of Persian origin, as does Muhammad Shahrazuri in his Tarikh al-hukama and Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah in his Tabaqat al-atibba. In contrast, Ibn Khallikan in his '"Wafayat al-'ayan considers him to be of Turkish descent. In any case, he was born in Farab in Khurasan of that day around 257/870 in a climate of Persianate culture"
  16. ^ Arabic: و كان من سلاله فارس in J. Mashkur, Farab and Farabi,Tehran,1972. See also Dehkhoda Dictionary under the entry Farabi for the same exact Arabic quote.
  17. ^ Majid Fakhry, Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works and Influence, Great Islamic Thinkers (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2002), 157. ISBN 9781851683024.
  18. ^
    • George Fadlo Hourani, Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Suny press, 1975.
    • Kiki Kennedy-Day, Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy: The Limits of Words, Routledge, 2002, page 32.
  19. ^ Joshua Parens (2006). An Islamic philosophy of virtuous religions : introducing Alfarabi. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. pp. 3. ISBN 0-7914-6689-2 excerpt: "He was a native speaker of Turkic [sic] dialect, Soghdian." [Note: Sogdian was an East Iranian language and not a Turkic dialect]
  20. ^ Joep Lameer, "Al-Fārābī and Aristotelian syllogistics: Greek theory and Islamic practice", E.J. Brill, 1994. ISBN 90-04-09884-4 pg 22: "..Islamic world of that time, an area whose inhabitants must have spoken Soghdian or maybe a Turkish dialect..."
  21. ^ مشكور، محمدجواد. “فاراب و فارابي“. دوره14، ش161 (اسفند 54): 15-20- . J. Mashkur, "Farabi and Farabi" in volume 14, No. 161, pp 15-12 ,Tehran,1972. [2] English translations of the arguments used by J. Mashkur can be found in: G. Lohraspi, "Some remarks on Farabi's background"; a scholarly approach citing C.E. Bosworth, B. Lewis, R. Frye, D. Gutas, J. Mashkur and partial translation of J.Mashkur's arguments: PDF. ولي فارابي فيلسوف تنها متعلق به ايران نبود بلكه به عالم اسلام تعلق داشت و از بركت قرآن و دين محمد به اين مقام رسيد. از اينجهت هه دانشمنداني كه در اينجا گرد آمده‌اند او را يك دانشمند مسلمان متعلق به عالم انسانيت مي‌دانند و كاري به تركي و فارسي و عربي بودن او ندارند.
  22. ^
    • P.J. King, "One Hundred Philosophers: the life and work of the world's greatest thinkers", chapter al-Fārābi, Zebra, 2006. pp 50: "Of Persian stock, al-Farabi (Alfarabius, AbuNaser) was born in Turkestan"
    • Henry Thomas, Understanding the Great Philosophers, Doubleday,Published 1962
    • T. J. De Boer, "The History of Philosophy in Islam", Forgotten Books, 2008. Excerpt page 98: "His father is said to have been a Persian General". ISBN 1-60506-697-4
    • Sterling M. McMurrin, Religion, Reason, and Truth: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Religion, University of Utah Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87480-203-2. page 40.
    • edited by Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins. (2003). From Africa to Zen : an invitation to world philosophy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 163. ISBN 0-7425-1350-5 "al-Farabi (870-950), a Persian,"
    • Thomas F. Glick. (1995). From Muslim fortress to Christian castle : social and cultural change in medieval Spain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 170. ISBN 0-7190-3349-7 "It was thus that al-Farabi (c. 870-950), a Persian philosopher"
    • The World's Greatest Seers and Philosophers.. Gardners Books. 2005. pp. 41. ISBN 81-223-0824-4 "al-Farabi (also known as Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi) was born of Turkish parents in the small village of Wasij near Farab, Turkistan (now in Uzbekistan) in 870 AD. His parents were of Persian descent, but their ancestors had migrated to Turkistan."
    • Bryan Bunch with Alexander Hellemans. (2004). The history of science and technology : a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 108. ISBN 0-618-22123-9 "Persian scholar al-Farabi"
    • Olivier Roy, "The new Central Asia: the creation of nations ", I.B.Tauris, 2000. 1860642799. pg 167: "Kazakhistan also annexes for the purpose of bank notes Al Farabi (870-950), the Muslim philosopher who was born in the south of present-day Kazakhistan but who persumably spoke Persian, particularly because in that era there were no Kazakhs in the region"
    • Majid Khadduri; [foreword by R. K. Ramazani]. The Islamic conception of justice. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1984.. pp. 84. ISBN 0-8018-6974-9 "Nasr al-Farabi was born in Farab (a small town in Transoxiana) in 259/870 to a family of mixed parentage — the father, who married a Turkish woman, is said to have been of Persian and Turkish descent — but both professed the Shi'l heterodox faith. He spoke Persian and Turkish fluently and learned the Arabic language before he went to Baghdad.
    • Ḥannā Fākhūrī, Tārīkh al-fikr al-falsafī ʻinda al-ʻArab, al-Duqqī, al-Jīzah : al-Sharikah al-Miṣrīyah al-ʻĀlamīyah lil-Nashr, Lūnjmān, 2002.
    • ’Ammar al-Talbi, al-Farabi, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, vol. XXIII, no. 1/2, Paris, 1993, p. 353-372
    • David Deming,"Science and Technology in World History: The Ancient World and Classical Civilization", McFarland, 2010. pg 94: "Al-Farabi, known in Medieval Europe as Abunaser, was a Persian philosopher who sought to harmonize.."
    • Philosophers: Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi, Trinity College, 1995-2000
  23. ^ B.G. Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, (Shipra Publications, 2005), 124; "Abu Nasr Farabi hailed from around ancient Farabi which was situated on the bank of Syr Daria and was the son of a Turk military commander".
  24. ^ Will Durant, The Age of Faith, (Simon and Schuster, 1950), 253.
  25. ^ Nicholas Rescher, Al-Farabi's Short Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, University of Pittsburgh Pre, 1963, p.11, Online Edition.
  26. ^ Antony Black, The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present, Routledge, p. 61, Online Edition
  27. ^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Kessinger Publishing, Vol. 10, p.757, Online Edition
  28. ^ * edited by Ted Honderich. (1995). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 269. ISBN 0-19-866132-0 "Of Turki origin, al-Farabi studied under Christian thinkers"
    • edited and translated by Norman Calder, Jawid Mojaddedi and Andrew Rippin. (2003). Classical Islam : a sourcebook of religious literature. New York: Routledge. pp. 170. ISBN 0-415-24032-8 "He was of Turkish origin, was born in Turkestan"
    • Ian Richard Netton. (1999). Al-Fārābī and his school. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1064-7 "He appears to have been born into a military family of Turkish origin in the village of Wasil, Farab, in Turkestan"
    • edited by Henrietta Moore. (1996). The future of anthropological knowledge. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10786-5 "al-Farabi (873-950), a scholar of Turkish origin."
    • Diané Collinson and Robert Wilkinson. (1994). Thirty-Five Oriental Philosophers.. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-02935-6 "Al-Farabi is thought to be of Turkish origin. His family name suggests that he came from the vicinity of Farab in Transoxiana."
    • Fernand Braudel ; translated by Richard Mayne. (1995). A history of civilizations. New York, N.Y.: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-012489-6 "Al-Farabi, born in 870, was of Turkish origin. He lived in Aleppo and died in 950 in Damascus"
    • Jaroslav Krejčí ; assisted by Anna Krejčová. (1990). Before the European challenge : the great civilizations of Asia and the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 140. ISBN 0-7914-0168-5 "the Transoxanian Turk al-Farabi (d. circa 950)"
    • Hamid Naseem. (2001). Muslim philosophy science and mysticism. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 78. ISBN 81-7625-230-1 "Al-Farabi, the first Turkish philosopher"
    • Clifford Sawhney. The World's Greatest Seers and Philosophers, 2005, p. 41
    • Zainal Abidin Ahmad. Negara utama (Madinatuʾl fadilah) Teori kenegaraan dari sardjana Islam al Farabi. 1964, p. 19
    • Haroon Khan Sherwani. Studies in Muslim Political Thought and Administration. 1945, p. 63
    • Ian Richard Netton. Al-Farabi and His School, 1999, p. 5
  29. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Barbarian Incursions: The Coming of the Turks into the Islamic World." In Islamic Civilization, ed. by D.S. Richards. Oxford, 1973.
  30. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (1993). "E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936". ISBN 9789004097902. 
  31. ^ History of logic: Arabic logic, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  32. ^ Feldman, Seymour (26 November 1964). "Rescher on Arabic Logic". The Journal of Philosophy (Journal of Philosophy, Inc.) 61 (22): 726. ISSN 0022-362X. JSTOR 2023632.  Long, A. A.; D. N. Sedley (1987). The Hellenistic Philosophers. Vol 1: Translations of the principal sources with philosophical commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27556-3. 
  33. ^ Ludescher, Tanyss (February 1996). "The Islamic roots of the poetic syllogism". College Literature. Archived from the original on 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  34. ^ a b c Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [363].
  35. ^ Netton, Ian Richard (2008). "Breaking with Athens: Alfarabi as Founder, Applications of Political Theory By Christopher A. Colmo". Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford University Press) 19 (3): 397–8. doi:10.1093/jis/etn047. 
  36. ^ "Avicenna/Ibn Sina (CA. 980-1137)". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  37. ^ a b c Arabic and Islamic Natural Philosophy and Natural Science, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  38. ^ Zahoor, Akram (2000). Muslim History: 570-1950 C.E. Gaithersburg, MD: AZP (ZMD Corporation). ISBN 978-0-9702389-0-0. 
  39. ^ Black, D. Al-Farabi in Leaman, O & Nasr, H (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge. p178.
  40. ^ Motahhari, Mortaza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p:162
  41. ^ Reisman, D. Al-Farabi and the Philosophical Curriculum In Adamson, P & Taylor, R. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p52
  42. ^ Motahhari, Morteza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.166 اگر بخواهيم كلمهای را به كار بريم كه مفيد مفهوم روش فلسفی مشائين باشد بايد كلمه ( استدلالی ) را به كار بريم .
  43. ^ "Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms". Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  44. ^ "Aristotelianism in Islamic philosophy". Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  45. ^ Motahhari, Mortaza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.167 فارابی كتاب كوچك معروفی دارد به نام ( الجمع بين رأيی الحكيمين ) در اين كتاب مسائل اختلافی اين دو فيلسوف طرح شده و كوشش شده كه به نحوی اختلافات ميان اين دو حكيم از بين برود .
  46. ^ Reisman, p55
  47. ^ Black, p188
  48. ^ Reisman, p56
  49. ^ Black, p189
  50. ^ Reisman, p57
  51. ^ Corbin, H. (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Keagan Paul International. p161
  52. ^ Reisman, p58-59
  53. ^ Reisman, p61
  54. ^ page 461
  55. ^ a b Reisman, p64
  56. ^ a b Reisman, p63
  57. ^ a b c Black, p186
  58. ^ Corbin, p158
  59. ^ Corbin, p165
  60. ^ Black, p184
  61. ^ Reisman, p60-61
  62. ^ Black (2), D. Psychology: Soul and Intellect in Adamson, P and Taylor, R. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p313
  63. ^ Black (b), p313
  64. ^ Black, p185
  65. ^ Corbin, p164
  66. ^ Black, p187
  67. ^ Corbin, p162
  68. ^ Black, p190
  69. ^ Butterworth, p278
  70. ^ Black, p191
  71. ^ Corbin, p162-163
  72. ^ Butterworth, C. Ethical and Political Philosophy in Adamson, P and Taylor, R. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p276
  73. ^ Reisman, p68
  74. ^ Joshua Parens, An Islamic Philosophy of Virtuous Religions: Introducing Alfarabi (New York: State University of New York Press, 2006), 2.
  75. ^ Mykhaylo Yakubovych. Al-Farabi's Book of Religion. Ukrainian translation, introduction and comments / Ukrainian Religious Studies Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 47, P. 237.

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