1. ^ "Chekhov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Old Style date 17 January.
  3. ^ Old Style date 2 July.
  4. ^ "Greatest short story writer who ever lived." Raymond Carver (in Rosamund Bartlett's introduction to About Love and Other Stories, XX); "Quite probably. the best short-story writer ever." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  5. ^ "Stories ... which are among the supreme achievements in prose narrative." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov, in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  6. ^ Letter to Alexei Suvorin, 11 September 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  7. ^ Harold Bloom, Genius: A Study of One Hundred Exemplary Authors.
  8. ^ "Actors climb up Chekhov like a mountain, roped together, sharing the glory if they ever make it to the summit". Actor Ian McKellen, quoted in Miles, 9.
  9. ^ "Chekhov's art demands a theatre of mood." Vsevolod Meyerhold, quoted in Allen, 13; "A richer submerged life in the text is characteristic of a more profound drama of realism, one which depends less on the externals of presentation." Styan, 84.
  10. ^ "Chekhov is said to be the father of the modern short story". Malcolm, 87; "He brought something new into literature." James Joyce, in Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, Usborne Publishing Ltd, 1974, ISBN 978-0-86000-006-8, 57; "Tchehov's breach with the classical tradition is the most significant event in modern literature", John Middleton Murry, in Athenaeum, 8 April 1922, cited in Bartlett's introduction to About Love.
  11. ^ "You are right in demanding that an artist should take an intelligent attitude to his work, but you confuse two things: solving a problem and stating a problem correctly. It is only the second that is obligatory for the artist." Letter to Suvorin, 27 October 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  12. ^ a b Wood, 78.
  13. ^ Payne, XVII.
  14. ^ Simmons, 18.
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b c d e f From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  17. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 2 January 1889, in Malcolm, p. 102.
  18. ^ Another insight into Chekhov's childhood came in a letter to his publisher and friend Alexei Suvorin: "From my childhood I have believed in progress, and I could not help believing in it since the difference between the time when I used to be thrashed and when they gave up thrashing me was tremendous." Letter to Suvorin, 27 March 1894. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  19. ^ Bartlett, 4–5.
  20. ^ a b Letter to I.L. Shcheglov, 9 March 1892. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  21. ^ Tabachnikova, Olga (2010). Anton Chekhov Through the Eyes of Russian Thinkers: Vasilii Rozanov, Dmitrii Merezhkovskii and Lev Shestov. Anthem Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-84331-841-5. For Rozanov, Chekhov represents a concluding stage of classical Russian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, caused by the fading of the thousand-year-old Christian tradition that had sustained much of this literature. On the one hand, Rozanov regards Chekhov's positivism and atheism as his shortcomings, naming them among the reasons for Chekhov's popularity in society. 
  22. ^ Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich (1997). Karlinsky, Simon; Heim, Michael Henry, eds. Anton Chekhov's Life and Thought: Selected Letters and Commentary. Northwestern University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8101-1460-9. While Anton did not turn into the kind of militant atheist that his older brother Alexander eventually became, there is no doubt that he was a non-believer in the last decades of his life. 
  23. ^ Richard Pevear (2009). Selected Stories of Anton Chekov. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. xxii. ISBN 978-0-307-56828-1. According to Leonid Grossman, "In his revelation of those evangelical elements, the atheist Chekhov is unquestionably one of the most Christian poets of world literature." 
  24. ^ He had been cheated by a contractor called Mironov. Rayfield, 31.
  25. ^ Letter to cousin Mihail, 10 May 1877. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  26. ^ Malcolm, 25.
  27. ^ a b c Payne, XX.
  28. ^ Letter to brother Mihail, 1 July 1876. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  29. ^ Simmons, 26.
  30. ^ Simmons, 33.
  31. ^ Rayfield, 69.
  32. ^ Wood, 79.
  33. ^ Rayfield, 91.
  34. ^ "There is in these miniatures an arresting potion of cruelty ... The wonderfully compassionate Chekhov was yet to mature." "Vodka Miniatures, Belching and Angry Cats", George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  35. ^ Willis, Louis (27 January 2013). "Chekhov's Crime Stories". Literary and Genre. Knoxville: SleuthSayers. 
  36. ^ a b Malcolm, 26.
  37. ^ Letter to N.A.Leykin, 6 April 1886. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  38. ^ Rayfield, 128.
  39. ^ They only ever fell out once, when Chekhov objected to the anti-Semitic attacks in New Times against Dreyfus and Zola in 1898. Rayfield, 448–50.
  40. ^ In many ways, the right-wing Suvorin, whom Lenin later called "The running dog of the Tzar" (Payne, XXXV), was Chekhov's opposite; "Chekhov had to function like Suvorin's kidney, extracting the businessman's poisons." Wood, 79.
  41. ^ The Huntsman.. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  42. ^ Malcolm, 32–3.
  43. ^ Payne, XXIV.
  44. ^ Simmons, 160.
  45. ^ "There is a scent of the steppe and one hears the birds sing. I see my old friends the ravens flying over the steppe." Letter to sister Masha, 2 April 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  46. ^ Letter to Grigorovich, 12 January 1888. Quoted by Malcolm, 137.
  47. ^ "'The Steppe,' as Michael Finke suggests, is 'a sort of dictionary of Chekhov's poetics,' a kind of sample case of the concealed literary weapons Chekhov would deploy in his work to come." Malcolm, 147.
  48. ^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mikhail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  49. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 20 November 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  50. ^ Petr Mikhaĭlovich Bit︠s︡illi (1983), Chekhov's Art: A Stylistic Analysis, Ardis, p. x 
  51. ^ Daniel S. Burt (2008), The Literature 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Novelists, Playwrights, and Poets of All Time, Infobase Publishing 
  52. ^ a b Valentine T. Bill (1987), Chekhov: The Silent Voice of Freedom, Philosophical Library 
  53. ^ S. Shchukin, Memoirs (1911)
  54. ^ "A Dreary Story.". Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  55. ^ Simmons, 186–91.
  56. ^ Malcolm, 129.
  57. ^ Simmons, 223.
  58. ^ Rayfield, 224.
  59. ^ Letter to sister, Masha, 20 May 1890. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  60. ^ Wood, 85.
  61. ^ Rayfield 230.
  62. ^ Letter to A.F.Koni, 16 January 1891. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  63. ^ Malcolm, 125.
  64. ^ Such is the general critical view of the work, but Simmons calls it a "valuable and intensely human document." Simmons, 229.
  65. ^ "The Murder". Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  66. ^ Murakami, Haruki. 1Q84. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 2011.
  67. ^ Heaney, Seamus. Station Island Farrar Straus Giroux: New York, 1985.
  68. ^ Payne, XXXI.
  69. ^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mikhail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  70. ^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  71. ^ Note-Book.. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  72. ^ Rayfield, 394–8.
  73. ^ Benedetti, Stanislavski: An Introduction, 25.
  74. ^ Chekhov and the Art Theatre, in Stanislavski's words, were united in a common desire "to achieve artistic simplicity and truth on the stage." Allen, 11.
  75. ^ Rayfield, 390–1. Rayfield draws from his critical study Chekhov's "Uncle Vanya" and the "Wood Demon" (1995), which anatomised the evolution of the Wood Demon into Uncle Vanya—"one of Chekhov's most furtive achievements."
  76. ^ Letter to Suvorin, 1 April 1897. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  77. ^ Olga Knipper, "Memoir", in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 37, 270.
  78. ^ Bartlett, 2.
  79. ^ Malcolm, 170–71.
  80. ^ "I have a horror of weddings, the congratulations and the champagne, standing around, glass in hand with an endless grin on your face." Letter to Olga Knipper, 19 April 1901.
  81. ^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 125.
  82. ^ "Olga's relations with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko were more than professional." Rayfield, 500.
  83. ^ Harvey Pitcher in Chekhov's Leading Lady, quoted in Malcolm, 59.
  84. ^ "Chekhov had the temperament of a philanderer. Sexually, he preferred brothels or swift liaisons." Wood, 78.
  85. ^ Letter to Suvorin, 23 March 1895. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  86. ^ Rayfield also tentatively suggests, drawing on obstetric clues, that Olga suffered an ectopic pregnancy rather than a miscarriage. Rayfield, 556–57.
  87. ^ There was certainly tension between the couple after the miscarriage, though Simmons, 569, and Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 241, put this down to Chekhov's mother and sister blaming the miscarriage on Olga's late-night socialising with her actor friends.
  88. ^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov.
  89. ^ Rosamund, Bartlett (2 February 2010). "The House That Chekhov Built". Evening Standard. p. 31. 
  90. ^ Greenberg, Yael. "The Presentation of the Unconscious in Chekhov's Lady With Lapdog." Modern Language Review 86.1 (1991): 126–130. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 November 2011.
  91. ^ "Overview: 'The Lady with the Dog'." Characters in 20th-Century Literature. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990. Literature Resource Center. Web. 3 November 2011.
  92. ^ Letter to sister Masha, 28 June 1904. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  93. ^ Malcolm, 62.
  94. ^ Olga Knipper, Memoir, in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 284.
  95. ^ "Banality revenged itself upon him by a nasty prank, for it saw that his corpse, the corpse of a poet, was put into a railway truck 'For the Conveyance of Oysters'." Maxim Gorky in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov.. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  96. ^ Chekhov's Funeral. M. Marcus.The Antioch Review, 1995
  97. ^ Malcolm, 91; Alexander Kuprin in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov. Retrieved 16 February 2007
  98. ^ "Novodevichy Cemetery". Passport Magazine. April 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  99. ^ Payne, XXXVI.
  100. ^ Tolstoy, a great admirer of Chekhov's short stories, divided them into two groups of "first quality" and "second quality." In the first category were: "Children", "The Chorus Girl", "A Play", "Home", "Misery", "The Runaway", "In Court", "Vanka", "Ladies", "The Malefactors", "The Boys", "Darkness", "Sleepy", "The Helpmate", and "The Darling"; in the second: "A Transgression", "Sorrow", "The Witch", "Verochka", "In a Strange Land", "The Cook's Wedding", "A Tedious Business", "An Upheaval", "Oh! The Public!", "The Mask", "A Woman's Luck", "Nerves", "The Wedding", "A Defenseless Creature", and "Peasant Wives". He had these stories bound into a book, which he read repeatedly with great satisfaction. – Simmons, p. 595.
  101. ^ Reading Mansfield and Metaphors of Reform. McGill-Queen's Press. 1999. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-7735-1791-2. 
  102. ^ Wood, 77.
  103. ^ Allen, 88.
  104. ^ "They won't allow a play which is seen to lament the lost estates of the gentry." Letter of Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, quoted by Anatoly Smeliansky in "Chekhov at the Moscow Art Theatre", from The Cambridge Companion to Chekhov, 31–2.
  105. ^ Anna Obraztsova in "Bernard Shaw's Dialogue with Chekhov", from Miles, 43–4.
  106. ^ Reynolds, Elizabeth (ed), Stanislavski's Legacy, Theatre Arts Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-87830-127-0, 81, 83.
  107. ^ "It was Chekhov who first deliberately wrote dialogue in which the mainstream of emotional action ran underneath the surface. It was he who articulated the notion that human beings hardly ever speak in explicit terms among each other about their deepest emotions, that the great, tragic, climactic moments are often happening beneath outwardly trivial conversation." Martin Esslin, from Text and Subtext in Shavian Drama, in 1922: Shaw and the last Hundred Years, ed. Bernard. F. Dukore, Penn State Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-271-01324-4, 200.
  108. ^ "Lee Strasberg became in my opinion a victim of the traditional idea of Chekhovian theatre ... [he left] no room for Chekhov's imagery." Georgii Tostonogov on Strasberg's production of Three Sisters in The Drama Review (winter 1968), quoted by Styan, 121.
  109. ^ "The plays lack the seamless authority of the fiction: there are great characters, wonderful scenes, tremendous passages, moments of acute melancholy and sagacity, but the parts appear greater than the whole." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  110. ^ Bartlett, "From Russia, with Love", The Guardian, 15 July 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  111. ^ Letter from Ernest Hemingway to Archibald MacLeish, 1925 (from Selected Letters, p. 179), in Ernest Hemingway on Writing, Ed Larry W. Phillips, Touchstone, (1984) 1999, ISBN 978-0-684-18119-6, 101.
  112. ^ Wood, 82.
  113. ^ From Vladimir Nabokov's Lectures on Russian Literature, quoted by Francine Prose in Learning from Chekhov, 231.
  114. ^ "For the first time in literature the fluidity and randomness of life was made the form of the fiction. Before Chekhov, the event-plot drove all fictions." William Boyd, referring to the novelist William Gerhardie's analysis in Anton Chekhov: A Critical Study, 1923. "A Chekhov Lexicon" by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  115. ^ Woolf, Virginia, The Common Reader: First Series, Annotated Edition, Harvest/HBJ Book, 2002, ISBN 0-15-602778-X, 172.
  116. ^ Michael Goldman, The Actor's Freedom: Towards a Theory of Drama, p72.
  117. ^ Sekirin, Peter (2011). Memories of Chekhov: Accounts of the Writer from His Family, Friends and Contemporaries. Foreword by Alan Twigg. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-0786458714. 
  118. ^ Rimer, J. Japanese Theatre and the International Stage. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 299–311. ISBN 90 04 120114. 
  119. ^ a b Clayton, J. Douglas. Adapting Chekhov: The Text and Its Mutations. Routledge. pp. 269–270. ISBN 978-0415509695.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  120. ^ Rayfield, Donald (1997). Anton Chekhov: A Life. ISBN 0-00-255503-4. 

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