A Doll's House

How does 1st act provide social commentary on the lives of middle class women in the 19th century?

How does 1st act provide social commentary on the lives of middle class women in the 19th century?

What dramatic effects are created by the discussion between the two old friends?

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Torvald’s assertion that Nora’s lack of understanding of money matters is the result of her gender (“Nora, my Nora, that is just like a woman”) reveals his prejudiced viewpoint on gender roles. Torvald believes a wife’s role is to beautify the home, not only through proper management of domestic life but also through proper behavior and appearance. He quickly makes it known that appearances are very important to him, and that Nora is like an ornament or trophy that serves to beautify his home and his reputation.

Torvald’s insistence on calling Nora by affectionately diminutive names evokes her helplessness and her dependence on him. The only time that Torvald calls Nora by her actual name is when he is scolding her. When he is greeting or adoring her, however, he calls her by childish animal nicknames such as “my little skylark” and “my squirrel.” By placing her within such a system of names, Torvald not only asserts his power over Nora but also dehumanizes her to a degree. When he implies that Nora is comparable to the “little birds that like to fritter money,” Torvald suggests that Nora lacks some fundamental male ability to deal properly with financial matters. Though Torvald accuses Nora of being irresponsible with money, he gives her more in order to watch her happy reaction. This act shows that Torvald amuses himself by manipulating his wife’s feelings. Nora is like Torvald’s doll—she decorates his home and pleases him by being a dependent figure with whose emotions he can toy.

In addition to being something of a doll to Torvald, Nora is also like a child to him. He shows himself to be competing with Nora’s dead father for Nora’s loyalty. In a sense, by keeping Nora dependent upon and subservient to him, Torvald plays the role of Nora’s second father. He treats her like a child, doling out money to her and attempting to instruct her in the ways of the world. Nora’s gift selections—a sword and a horse for her male children and a doll for her daughter—show that she reinforces the stereotypical gender roles that hold her in subservience to Torvald. Nora sees her daughter the same way she has likely been treated all of her life—as a doll.